DPR – DYNAMIC PLAYER RATING
DPR is a proprietary metric on a scale of 0 to 100 which measures 18 different statical categories for hitting and 13 for pitching. Unlike other advanced all-encompassing stats like WAR, it’s a per-game stat and thus takes into account statistics that are measured on a game-to-game basis.
We categorize relief pitchers and starters differently, though, the way in which their DPR is calculated is the same (read below for further details on this).
Our DPR grading scale is the following:
95 or higher = ⭐
94-90 = A+
89-85 = A
84-80 = A-
79-75 = B+
74-70 = B
69-65 = B-
64-60 = C+
59-55 = C
54-50 = C-
49-45 = D+
44-40 = D
39-35 = D-
34 or lower = F
Anything above a 100 is a special game. It’s important to understand that it would be close to impossible to average anything above a 90 over the course of an entire season—though, at the moment, Mookie Betts is accomplishing this rare feat, recording our highest DPR ever in any sport. However, given the nature of baseball, in a single game, it’s possible to go above 100 when a player truly goes off.
Notable great games per DPR recorded by our stats and analytics department are the Cincinnati Reds Scooter Gennett’s four home run game in 2017, something that’s only happened 18 times in MLB history, which recorded an off-the-charts 335.66 DPR. This season, Oakland A’s pitcher Sean Manaea recorded a 104.16 for his no-hit performance on April 21st against the Boston Red Sox—with pitchers appearing in fewer games, their scores on special games tend to be lower which allows their overall season average to not be thrown off by one big performance.
This is the most dynamic and flexible version of DPR that we’ve provided in three sports. There’s no way to break or stump the metric as it allows for games above 100 or below 0, which in a sport of extreme highs and lows like baseball does happen.
Our Dynamic Player Rating takes into account Runs Batted In, Runs, Hits, Singles, Doubles, Triples, Home Runs, Walks, Intentional Walks, Strikeouts, Sacrifice Hits, Sacrifice Flies, times Grounded into Double Plays, Stolen Bases, times Caught Stealing, Win Probability Added (WPA), and On Base Percentage plus Slugging (OPS). To calculate DPR we also take into account Plate Appearances.
We measure hits similarly to how slugging percentage does. DPR also measures both positive and negative stats which can raise or lower a player’s rating. Every statistic has a specific weight, with Home Runs being the highest weighted stat of all.
DPR for hitters is a purely offensive statistic as defensive stats like errors, assists, or putouts are very dependent on positions and thus have inherent biases—we provide defensive stats in our player profiles and overall statistics.
For pitchers, DPR takes into account Innings Pitched, Hits allowed, Earned Runs, Walks, Strike Outs, Singles allowed, Doubles allowed, Triples allowed, Home Runs allowed, Earned Run Average (per that game), Strike percentage, Pickoffs, and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP).
The number of innings pitched is very important here and weighs heavily in DPR. Thus, starters naturally present more value than relief pitchers. This also makes it so that long relievers or pitchers who start a few games but are also asked to pitch out of the bullpen, don’t have to be straddled between two variations of the metric.
Non-qualified pitchers are pitchers who’ve appeared in less than 20-percent of games. If a player is pitching in one inning every five outings, he qualifies—of course, every player has a DPR for every game they appear in. For a hitter to not be qualified he must have fewer plate appearances than games the team has played thus far.
OTHER ADVANCED STATS WE USE
Ground Ball to Fly Ball ratio (GB/FB)
Especially for pitchers who aren’t huge strikeout artists, having a good ground ball to fly ball ratio is key. This simply denotes the frequency of how many batted ground balls a pitcher is inducing versus fly balls.
Runs Above Replacement (RAR)
The number of runs the pitcher is better than a replacement player.
Left on Base percentage (LOB%)
A great statistic for relievers, in particular, it’s simply the percentage of base runners that a pitcher strands throughout the season.
This is a pitchers ERA only it accounts for outside factors like ballparks and opponents. It also takes into account league averages during a particular season.
Win Probability Added (WPA)
This is factored into our DPR calculations as it’s a game-by-game stat. It is a measure of how a player’s performance affects the outcome of the game, both positively or negatively. We have it in our game logs and also the overall season average for the Rockies pitchers.
A sabermetrics staple. Wins above replacement is actually calculated slightly differently on several different sites. We’ve stuck to the Baseball Reference’s version, which includes defensive support and accounts for high leverage situations. It’s not accounted for in DPR but does appear in our player profiles and stat pages.
Similar to ERA+, this is OPS that also takes into account the ballparks and adjusts for league averages.
Weighted on Base Average (wOBA)
Is a statistic that assesses a player’s overall offensive contribution per plate appearance, it was created by Tom Tango.
Essentially, it divides various offensive events (Home runs, singles, doubles, etc.) and divides them by a hitter’s plate appearances, putting them on the same scale as an on-base percentage. It’s explained further here. For the purposes of our stats, it’s calculated in-house to make the automation of our stats quicker.
Leverage is assessed as in-game situations that can have higher or lower outcomes on the game’s final outcome (similar to WPA). These different leverage situations are divided up into low, medium, and high events.
A low leverage situation would be, for example, in a blowout where the result of a plate appearance will have little effect on the outcome of the game. High-leverage can be a bases-loaded situation in the ninth inning of a tied game.
We give you OPS’ for these three different leverage situations in our player profiles and stat pages.
Isolated Power (ISO)
This is a measure of a batter’s raw power minus their batting average. If a player hits only singles, they would have an ISO of 0.
Runs Above Average (RAA)
This metric is a variation on WAR and is based on the Pythagorean Win formula. It measures how many runs a hitter contributes to their team compared to an average player.